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Baby Goat Poop Print E-mail
Written by Administrator-GL   
Wednesday, 30 May 2007

Scouring (Diarrhea) in Baby Goats

(Constipated Baby Goat Enema Instruction Here)

can kill a baby in a matter of days or less depending on the severity of the scouring and the cause for the scouring. No time to wait and see with baby goats- Act as soon as you see abnormality in any aspect of their health.
photo of Baby Goat Poop
This is normal goat baby poop for the first days to week or so. This will harden like tree sap does and will be very difficult to get off the butt and hair. This is from goat moms who do not clean the baby butt. If this happens the baby will not be able to pass more poop and will get very sick and perhaps die if not taken care of. Wash the area well with warm soapy water, allow to dry and apply a generous coating of Vasoline on the under tail, the butt and down the back legs.


This is scouring from the baby eating a bit too much milk (or possibly too rich milk) from either mom or bottle. This is a very mild case of baby goat scouring you see here. This will typically clear itself up in a day. If it does not then time to act accordingly (see article below)

Baby Goat Poop
This is a sign on or in the hay that a baby in your herd has a poopy butt. Time to go and check baby butts to see who is having the scouring problem.

normal baby goat poop
This is what baby poop will look like sometime during the end of the first week or into the second week for a few weeks to month before you get poop pellets- and this will depend on what the baby goat is eating as far as hay and or grain (grain IN tiny amounts ladies for babies over a month old only)


Neonatal Scouring can be caused by :



Bacteria

1. E-coli-
Is the most important bacterial cause of diarrhea in baby goats; at least 2 distinct types of diarrhea l disease are produced by different strains of this organism. The infection most frequently is in the cecum and colon, but the distal small intestine can also be affected. The damage in severe infections can result in edema and mucosal erosions and ulceration, leading to hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen.
Fluid therapy is the most important treatment! Severe dehydration: Veterinarian treatment with IV fluids. In kids that are mildly to moderately dehydrated (8% or less), oral fluid therapy is an effective route. Do not mix the electrolyte solutions with the milk because it will interfere with the casein clotting process and make the milk non digestible for the baby goat (neonate), adding to the scouring. Some people will give oral Biosol (Neomycin Sulfate)(not to be confused with Biomycin) to help alleviate the bacteria in the gut.

The Most important medication to have on hand for ANY baby goat scouring or gut irritation is CD ANTI-toxin (Not to be confused with CD&T Toxoid). CD Anti toxin is given SubQ at the rate of 1cc/5lbs but for small babies I always give at least 2ccs even if they are not 10 pounds in weight.

Treatment:
Neomycin Soluble Powder, Biosol, Terramycin®, Oxytetracycline

2. Salmonella
The usual route of infection is oral and, after infection, the organism multiplies in the intestine and causes enteritis. Greater susceptibility of the young may be due to high gastric pH, absence of a stable intestinal flora, and limited immunity. (especially in neonates who have not received colostrum).


The organisms may survive for months in wet, warm areas such as in feeder pig barns or in water dugouts but survive <1 wk in composted cattle manure. Rodents and wild birds also are sources of infection. Pelleting of feeds reduces the level of contamination by salmonellae.

The prevalence of infection varies among species and countries and is much higher than the incidence of clinical disease, which is commonly precipitated by stressful situations such as sudden deprivation of feed, transportation, drought, crowding, parturition, and the administration of some drugs.
In calves and lambs, (this would include goats) - the disease is usually endemic on a particular farm, with sporadic explosive outbreaks. Subclinical infection with occasional herd outbreaks may be seen in adult cattle. Stressors that precipitate clinical disease include deprivation of feed and water, minimal levels of nutrition, long transport times, calving, and mixing and crowding in feedlots.


Septicemia is the usual syndrome in newborn calves, lambs, kids, foals, and piglets, and outbreaks may occur in pigs up to 6 mo old. Illness is acute, depression is marked, fever (105-107°F [40.5-41.5°C]) is usual, and death occurs in 24-48 hr. Nervous signs may be seen in calves and pigs; these animals may also suffer from pneumonia. Mortality may reach 100%.
Acute enteritis is the common form in adults as well as in calves that are usually ≥1 wk old. Initially, there is fever (105-107°F [40.5-41.5°C]), followed by severe watery diarrhea, sometimes dysentery, and often tenesmus (spastic eye movements). In a herd outbreak, several hours may lapse before the onset of diarrhea, at which time the fever may disappear. The feces, which vary considerably, may have a putrid odor and contain mucus, fibrinous casts, shreds of mucous membrane, and in some cases, large blood clots. Rectal examination causes severe discomfort, tenesmus, and commonly dysentery. Milk production often declines precipitously in dairy cows.
Sub-acute enteritis may develop in adult horses, goats and sheep on farms where the disease is endemic. The signs include mild fever (103-104°F [39-40°C]), soft feces, inappetence, and some dehydration. There may be a high incidence of abortion in cows and ewes, some deaths in ewes after abortion, and a high mortality rate due to enteritis in lambs younger than a few weeks of age. In cattle, the first signs may be fever and abortion, followed several days later by diarrhea.
Chronic enteritis is a common form in pigs and adult cattle (Adult goats as well). There is persistent diarrhea, severe emaciation, intermittent fever, and poor response to treatment. The feces are scant and may be normal or contain mucus, casts, or blood. In growing pigs, rectal stricture may be a sequela if the terminal part of the rectum is involved. Affected pigs are anorectic and lose weight; the abdomen becomes grossly distended. The stricture is obvious on digital palpation and necropsy.

Treatment
Broad-spectrum antibiotics are used and should be continued daily for up to 6 days. Oral medication (tetracycline) should be given in drinking water because affected animals are thirsty due to dehydration, and their appetite is generally poor. Fluid therapy to correct acid-base imbalance and dehydration is necessary. Calves, adult cattle, and horses need large quantities of fluids. Antibiotics such as ampicillin or cephalosporins lead to lysis of the bacteria with release of endotoxin.

3. Clostridium perfringens Type C & D,
comes from eating-
a. too much milk from mom and not digesting it
b. milk replacers
c. overeating grasses and grains.. (older goats and older kids)


Acute Clostridium perfringens disease of kids less than 3 wks old.
Many kids may die before signs are seen, but symptoms include: newborn kids will stop nursing (many times acting hungry but not sucking-belly seemingly full), become listless, and go recumbent. A strong smelling, blood-tinged diarrhea is common, and death usually occurs within a few days unless otherwise treated  (1cc/5lbs of C&D ANTI-toxin subQ every 6 hours).

Clostridium perfringens types C & D are gram-positive bacteria which normally inhabit the ruminant digestive tract in numbers low enough to cause no problems. With the ability to reproduce in as little as eight minutes, it can become a dangerous organism within a very short time when conditions allow it. The problem is not the bacteria themselves, it is the toxins they produce which poison the goat from within.

Enterotoxemia, the disease caused by C. perfringens, is often called 'Overeating disease' because animals have eaten a fair quantity of a feed they are not used to or more than usual of something that is a normal part of their diet. Sudden changes in the diet or feeding practices may set off a chain of events that leads to proliferation of these disease-causing bacteria. Enterotoxemia may also seem to occur spontaneously, although sudden or dramatic changes in weather or other stressors are probably the predisposing factors.

Virus
Rotavirus is the most common viral cause of diarrhea in calves and lambs. Groups A and B rotavirus are involved, but group A is most prevalent and clinically important and contains several serotypes of differing virulence. Rotavirus replicates in the mature absorptive and enzyme-producing enterocytes on the villi of the small intestine, leading to rupture and sloughing of the enterocytes with release of virus to infect adjacent cells. Rotavirus does not infect the immature cells of the crypts. With virulent strains of rotavirus, the loss of enterocytes exceeds the ability of the intestinal crypts to replace them; hence, villous height is reduced, with a consequent decrease in intestinal absorptive surface area and intestinal digestive enzyme activity.
Coronavirus is also commonly associated with diarrhea in calves. It replicates in the epithelium of the upper respiratory tract and in the enterocytes of the intestine, where it produces similar lesions to rotavirus but also infects the epithelial cells of the large intestine to produce atrophy of the colonic ridges.

Treatment:Viral infections are not treatable with antibiotics. The most effective therapy is to encourage sick neonates to drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration. Electrolyte therapy is what is needed here. Antibacterial drugs such as Biosol and Terramycin can also be used.

Protozoa
Cryptosporidiosis primarily in neonatal calves but also in lambs, kids, foals, and piglets. It is considered a cause of varying degrees of naturally occurring diarrhea in neonatal farm animals. The parasites commonly act in concert with other enteropathogens to produce intestinal injury and diarrhea.
Infection can be detected as early as 5 days of age, with the greatest proportion of calves excreting organisms between days 9 and 14. Many reports associate infection in calves with diarrhea occurring at 5-15 days of age. C parvum is also a common enteric infection in young lambs and goats. Diarrhea can result from a monoinfection, but more commonly is associated with mixed infections. Infection can be associated with severe outbreaks of diarrhea, with high case fatality rates in lambs 4-10 days of age and in goat kids 5-21 days of age.
Feces are yellow or pale, watery, and contain mucus. The persistent diarrhea may result in marked weight loss and emaciation. In most cases, the diarrhea is self-limiting after several days. Varying degrees of apathy, anorexia, and dehydration are present. Only rarely do severe dehydration, weakness, and collapse occur, in contrast to other causes of acute diarrhea in neonatal calves. Case fatality rates can be high in herds with cryptosporidiosis when the calf feeder withholds milk and feeds only electrolyte solutions during the episode of diarrhea.

Coccidiosis
Numerous species of Eimeria  are found in goats in North America. The Eimeria  spp  are host-specific and are not transmitted from sheep to goats.
E arloingi , E christenseni , and E ovinoidalis are highly pathogenic in kids. Clinical signs include diarrhea with or without mucus or blood, dehydration, emaciation, weakness, anorexia, and death. Some goats are actually constipated and die acutely without diarrhea. Usually, stages and lesions are confined to the small intestine, which may appear congested, hemorrhagic, or ulcerated, and have scattered pale, yellow to white macroscopic plaques in the mucosa. Histologically, villous epithelium is sloughed, and inflammatory cells are seen in the lamina propria and submucosa. In addition, there have been several reports of hepatobiliary coccidiosis with liver failure in dairy goats. Diagnosis of intestinal coccidiosis is based on finding oocysts of the pathogenic species in diarrheal feces, usually at tens of thousands to millions per gram of feces. It is not unusual to find oocyst counts as high as 70,000 in kids without overt disease, but weight gain may be affected.
Angora and dairy goats, raised under different management practices, may have similar patterns of exposure of kids. Just after parturition, nursery pens and surrounding areas may be heavily contaminated with oocysts from does. Resistance to infection is decreased just after shipping, changing rations, introducing new animals, or mixing young with older animals.
Treatment:

Coccidiostats  (Sulmet, DiMethox or Albon is a MUCH better choice than Corid) can be administered to a herd immediately after diagnosis or as a preventive in predictable situations such as those mentioned above.
Diagnosis and treatment are similar to those for cattle and sheep. Sulfadimidine at 55 g/tonne is also effective for the control of coccidiosis in goats. In nonlactating goats, adding monensin to the feed at 18 g/tonne is preventive.


Other causes of Scouring in Neonates:
Calves (or goat kids) that are fed large amounts of milk or inappropriately formulated milk replacers (which in the case of goat kids is in My opinion ANY milk replacer) produce a large volume of feces with a greater than normal fluid content. Similarly, calves sucking high-producing beef cows grazing lush pasture may have loose feces. Milk replacers with poor quality, heat-denatured proteins or with excessive amounts of soybean or fish protein or carbohydrates of nonmilk origin have a higher risk of producing scouring (diarrhea).
There is some evidence that the oral administration of chloramphenicol, neomycin, or tetracycline to young calves (or goat kids)  for 3-5 days can result in villous change with resultant malabsorption and mild diarrhea. Prolonged and high-dose antibiotic treatment of calves can lead to diarrhea associated with bacterial superinfection of the intestine.

Colisepticemia  is seen during the first week of life, most commonly at 2-5 days of age. Chronic disease with localization can be seen up to 2 wk of age. The disease is usually sporadic and is more common in dairy than beef calves. (And can be seen in goat kids of the same age)
Invasion occurs primarily through the nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa but can also occur across the intestine or via the umbilicus and umbilical veins. There is a period of subclinical bacteremia that, with virulent strains, is followed by rapid development of septicemia and death from endotoxemic shock. A more prolonged course, with localization of infection, polyarthritis, meningitis, and less commonly uveitis and nephritis, is seen with less virulent strains.

The organism is excreted in nasal and oral secretions, urine, and feces; excretion begins during the preclinical bacteremic stage. Initial infection can be acquired from a contaminated environment. In groups of calves, transmission is by direct nose-to-nose contact, urinary and respiratory aerosols, or as the result of navel-sucking or fecal-oral contact.

In the acute disease, the clinical course is short (3-8 hr), and signs are related to the development of septic shock. Pyrexia is not prominent, and the rectal temperature may be subnormal. Listlessness and an early loss of interest in sucking are followed by depression, poor response to external stimuli, collapse, recumbency, and coma. Tachycardia, a poor pulse pressure, and a prolonged capillary refill time are seen. The feces are loose and mucoid, but severe diarrhea is not seen in uncomplicated cases. Mortality approaches 100%. With a more prolonged clinical course, the infection may localize. Polyarthritis and meningitis are common; tremor, hyperesthesia, opisthotonos, and convulsions are seen occasionally, but stupor and coma are more common.

Treatment:
Treatment requires aggressive use of antibiotics. Because there is no time for sensitivity testing, the initial choice should be a bactericidal drug that has a high probability of efficacy against gram-negative organisms.
(Tetracycline, Sulfa Drugs, Amoxicillin, Tylan((Tylosin is an antibiotic of the macrolide class (same class as erythromycin). It is made naturally by the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae and acts to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by inhibiting the 50S ribosome, a cellular structure only certain bacteria have and use to make internal proteins.Tylosin is licensed for use as a broad spectrum antibiotic for injectable or oral use in treatment of infection in livestock. In small animals, tylosin is used for its anti-inflammatory properties in the large intestine rather than for its ability to fight infection. While few formal studies have been performed to examine this non-antibacterial property of tylosin, this has not stopped tylosin from being widely used in the treatment of colitis in pets.))

An Important Note About Penicillin
# Penicillin is not well absorbed from the intestinal tract meaning that at least 70% of an oral dose is wasted.

# Penicillin is also a short-acting medication, with half of the amount circulating being removed from the body every half hour.

# Not all bacteria have the type of cell wall which is susceptible to destruction by Penicillin. (Bacteria are classified as Gram negative or Gram positive, depending on the cell wall characteristics. Penicillin is able to punch holes through the Gram positive cell wall but is not very effective against the Gram negative cell wall.)

# Staphylococci (an important group of bacteria) have developed an enzyme to break the Penicillin molecule apart and are thus rarely susceptible to Penicillin.



Antibacterial therapy should be coupled with aggressive fluid, drug, and other therapy for endotoxic shock. Mortality is high despite aggressive treatment.

Here is a list of the common types of scours you will find.. this is ONLY a guide.. nothing is written in stone ..


(Make sure you have already ruled out wormload but typically for kids under 3 weeks of age worm or cocci is not an issue) It is only meant to help you narrow it down quickly and then research from there.

The four major causes of diarrhea in lambs and kids during the first month of life are E. Coli, rotavirus, Cryposporidum sp., Salmonella sp. and Nutritional. E. coli scours are most common.

E. Coli

E. coli scours is an opportunistic disease associated with sloppy environmental conditions and poor sanitation. It is seen in lambs and kids less than 10 days of age, but is most common at 1 to 4 days of age. It usually presents itself as an outbreak in lambs and kids between 12 and 48 hours of age. It is also called "watery mouth," because affected lambs salivate and have a cold mouth. Fluid therapy is the mainstay of therapy.

Rotavirus

Lambs and kids are infected with a group of B rotaviruses, whereas most other animals and humans are infected with group A rotoviruses. Rotavirus generally causes diarrhea in lambs and kids at 2 to 14 days of age. Young animals become very depressed and dehydrated.

Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoa that can cause diarrhea similar to that of rotavirus infection. Cryptosporidia can cause diarrhea in lambs and kids 5 to 10 days of age. Affected animals are often active, alert, and nursing. The diarrhea is usually very liquid and yellow.

Salmonella

The bacteria Salmonella has thousands of serotypes and all can potentially cause diarrhea in animals. Salmonella can cause diarrhea in lambs and kids of any age. Animals less than 1 week of age are more likely to die without clinical signs, whereas animals older than 1 week are more likely to have diarrhea. Salmonella also causes outbreaks of diarrhea in late gestation and is frequently associated with abortion. Bleach is an effective disinfectant to use during an outbreak.

Nutritional

Infectious agents are not the only cause of diarrhea in neonates. Nutritional problems can result in diarrhea. Nutritional diarrhea is most common in orphaned animals as a result of using milk replacers, rich milk formula,and overfeeding. Consumption of lush pasture or high-energy diets can also result in diarrhea in young lambs and kids.

A scouring lamb or kid loses large amounts of fluids and electrolytes, such as sodium and chlorine. Usually the cause of death in scouring lambs and kids is dehydration and acidosis, or increased body acidity. Whatever the microbial cause of scours, the most effective treatment for a scouring lamb or kid is rehydration by administering fluids.
I am also giving you a quick rundown on what most of these diseases are and how they are typically treated.. what the other symptoms are .. but use your own judgment.. and if one thing does not seem right then, read more about something else.. nothing is exact or textbook..

This COLOR List of Scours will give you a quick summary of what the scours may look like and the possible problem it could represent.. It gives you a place to start. There are other things that can cause scouring, but these are the most commonly seen.

*Dark, loose Feces, not quite scours-- Sometimes bloody, usually seen in well fed kids under 12 weeks old: It could be: Clostridium perfringens type D also called Enterotoxemia

*Black and tarry, yellow to greenish watery OR Grey foul smelling Scours-- Sometimes with blood or tissue- high fever accompanies. Babies to adults: It could be: Salmonellosis

*Bright Yellow profuse Scours-- Usually watery. In babies under a week old- no fever or sub normal temp: It could be: E Coli

*Watery or foamy; pasty, dark or bloody Scours-- Foul smell, looks as though contains unclotted blood and sometimes tissue and mucus. Effecting kids between 4 weeks and 5 months old with the highest incidence being between 4 & 7 weeks of age. : It could be: Coccidiosis

*Watery and yellowish Scours-- With mucus or blood at times, low grade fever, caused by oocysts. Effects 1 to 4 week old kids usually (they are susceptible until they become functional ruminants): It could be: Cryptosporidiosis

*White or light yellow Scours-- Acute. Sour odor, can look curdled. Usually affects newborns to 4 weeks old, but most commonly seen in babies younger than 2 weeks old. : Foul smell, looks as though it contains unclotted blood and sometimes tissue and mucus. Milk Scours from too much milk or milk replacer.

*Pasty, gas bubbles-dark Scours-- Foul smelling with gas bubbles in it. Only goats over 18 months old.. It could be: Johnes Disease (Paratuberculosis)

*Bright green Scours-- Acid smell, watery to pasty. Too rich Milk , pasture or hay. Any age that eats grass,hay or pasture. Feed Scours

  Infectious causes of diarrhea in sheep and lambs
Bacterial E. coli
Salmonella sp.
Clostridium perfringins
Viral Rotavirus
Coronavirus
Protozoa Cryptosporidia
Coccidia (Eimera sp.)
Giardia sp.
  Non-infectious causes (or contributing factors)
Parasitic Gastro-intestinal worms
(not Haemonchus)
Nutritional Dietary changes
Overfeeding
Simple indigestion
Milk replacers
Inadequate intake of colostrum
Poor quality colostrum
Poor quality or stagnant water
Lush or wet pasture
Inadequate dry matter intake
Plant and fungal toxins
Allergies
Management
(Poor environment)

Overstocking/Overcrowding
Poor sanitation

Stress Weaning
Handling
Weather extremes
Shipping/Transportation
Read More Here on these types of scours

Ruminal Drinkers can also be accompanied by diarrhea.
Ruminal drinkers refers to calves (And Goat Kids & lambs) that develop chronic indigestion because milk is deposited into the rumen as a result of failure of the reticular groove reflex during drinking.
The disease is most common in bucket-fed calves, especially veal calves 2-8 wk old. Neonates that “gulp” rather than sip milk are at greatest risk. The milk retained in the rumen ferments and produces acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactate; the pH in the rumen falls; and dyskeratosis of the ruminal mucosa develops. Secondary changes include villous atrophy in the small intestine and reduced disaccharidase activity of the brush border. Affected neonates show inappetence, ventral abdominal distention, and poor growth. They pass sticky, clay-like feces that may adhere to the tail, perineum, and hind legs. Chronically affected neonates are small for their age and have a poor prognosis. Fluid-splashing sounds, audible on auscultation over the left flank while the calf is drinking, are diagnostic. Rancid-smelling fermented material can be obtained by stomach tube from the rumen. A ruminal pH of <6 leads to systemic acid-base disturbance.

Treatment consists of removing the fermented material and flushing the rumen with saline.
(Common practice for goat owners is to give the kid an enema, and milk of magnesia (MOM) to flush the digestive system of all bacteria caused by this anomaly)
With subsequent feedings, an attempt is made to induce reticular groove closure by inducing vigorous sucking activity with the fingers before feeding milk.
(Holding the bottle in an upright position will also aid in the closure of the rumino reticular groove)
proper way to hold bottle for bottle fed baby goats Neonates that relapse should be fed by nipple-bottle or weaned. Failure of the reticular groove reflex and putrefactive rumenitis also is seen in calves <2 wk old and can be an important cause of sporadic cases of diarrhea in this age group.

NOTE:
Because of the complex nature of diarrhea in neonates, it is unrealistic to expect total prevention—economical control is the major objective. The incidence of clinical disease and the case fatality rate depend on the balance between the levels of exposure to infectious agents and the resistance in the neonate.

Differences in herd size; availability of facilities, land, and labor; and general management objectives make it impossible to recommend specific management procedures that are applicable to all situations.
However, 3 broad principles apply in all herds:
1) the degree of exposure of neonates should be reduced by isolating diseased animals or by moving neonatal rearing to a separate area, and by practicing good general hygiene;
2) nonspecific resistance should be maximized by providing good nutrition to the dam and neonate and assuring that newborn neonate consume ≥5% of their body wt of high-quality colostrum, preferably within 1 hour and certainly within 6 hr of birth, followed by equivalent amounts at 12-hr intervals for the next 48 hr; and
3) the specific resistance of the newborn should be increased by vaccinating the dam or the newborn. A significant portion of both naturally sucking dairy calves and calves handfed colostrum do not acquire adequate amounts of immunoglobulin because of delayed sucking or feeding, ingestion of an inadequate volume of colostrum, or ingestion of colostrum of inferior immunoglobulin concentration.
Last Updated ( Sunday, 23 February 2014 )
 
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The information in this website; Goat-Link.com, is not meant to substitute regular veterinarian visits- I am not a veterinarian - the information here is derived from my research and personal experience and is meant to be informational and not to replace your veterinarian.

 
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