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All information provided in these articles is based either on personal experience or information provided by others whose treatments and practices have been discussed fully with a vet for accuracy and effectiveness before passing them on to readers.
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PLEASE keep in mind, just because there is a DVM after the name does not mean they have the proper answers for goat owners 'Caveat emptor'- You need to find a responsible GOAT Vet

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Urinary Calculi (UC) Male Goats Print E-mail
Written by Administrator-GL   
Tuesday, 12 June 2007
Article Index
Urinary Calculi (UC) Male Goats
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Although a tube cystostomy may be performed with sedation and local nerve blocks, general anesthesia is often used. This permits optimal sterile technique and time to remove uroliths from the bladder or repair it if it has ruptured, and allows the surgeon to thoroughly flush the abdomen before placing the tube. Once the tube is in place, it can be attached to sterile collection system or covered with a one-way valve to allow urine excretion. The tube is kept in the animal until urine is seen dripping from the prepuce for 48 hours (Figure 5). Then, the tube is clamped and urination is monitored. If the animal can urinate, is not painful, and is able to empty its bladder, the tube is removed. If the animal can only partially urinate and continues to retain urine, the tube is left unobstructed for 5 to 7 more days and the process is repeated. On average, a tube cystostomy is removed 10 to 14 days after surgery.

Hlth Cond: RumUro_Fig5

Figure 5:  A ram with a cystostomy tube in place.  The tube will be removed once the ram can urinate normally from the penis.  The tube will be temporarily blocked before it is removed to make sure that the urethra is not blocked.

The main complicaton with this procedure is the risk of reobstruction following removal of the tube.  Also, early removal (less than 5 days after placement) or accidental obstruction of the tube could result in leakage of urine into the abdomen (Figure 6).

Hlth Cond: RumUro_Fig6

Figure 6:  The cystostomy tube (green arrow) has accidentally been pulled out of the bladder and is now leaking urine (red arrow) into the abdomen.

Prepubic Cystostomy — For animals that have strictured (narrowed) perineal urethrostomy sites and subsequent re-obstruction, a permanent opening can be made between the bladder and the belly wall near the prepuce. This procedure is called a “prepubic cystostomy” or bladder “marsupialization”. Urine will leak constantly from this hole, and may irritate the skin (“urine scald”), particularly if the skin around the new opening is not shaved and cleaned frequently.

Because animals with prepubic cystostomy can develop chronic urinary tract infections, this procedure is a “last resort” treatment for pet animals. In addition, the permanent cystostomy can become strictured and obstructed, requiring a second or third surgical procedure.

Urethral Translocation can be attempted to “by-pass” a ruptured urethra (or failed urethrostomy). This also is a “last resort” procedure for pet animals. This complicated procedure involves attaching the urethra in the belly to the lower half of the penis or prepuce.  Complications include loss of bladder tone and function (“neurogenic bladder atony”, with pooling of urine in the bladder and subsequent development of chronic cystitis (bladder infection).

When to Contact an ACVS Veterinary Surgeon
Because of potential complications, advanced urethral surgeries may require specialized training, particularly when the patient is a valuable breeding animal or beloved pet.  Find an ACVS Veterinary Surgeon specializing in Large Animal Surgery.

Breeding Males
Little data exists regarding the effect of urethral process amputation on fertility in small ruminants. However, minimal reduction in fertility (<10%) is expected. When urethral obstruction does not involve the urethral process, breeding bucks occasionally can be preserved using tube cystostomy to manage urolithiasis. When successful, the urethra is preserved, intact, and a normal erection during breeding is expected.  Breeding males should be rested sexually for 1-2 weeks after urethral process amputations and for 2 months after other urethral surgeries to reduce the chance of surgical complications. 

Prevention of Urolithiasis
All show animals that must be fed a relatively high grain diet should have salt (sodium chloride) added into the ration at a rate of 2 to 5 % (alternatively, ammonium chloride can be used at a rate of 0.5 to 1 %) to increase the amount of urine formation or acidify urine. Diets high in calcium may reduce the amount of phosphorus absorbed; owners should always speak to their veterinarians before adding any supplements to the feed. Horse-feed should never be fed to small ruminants because the diet is not balanced appropriately for them and therefore increases the risk uroliths formation. 

— David E. Anderson, DVM, MS
Diplomate ACVS

Posted 3/23/2006

The American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) recommends contacting an ACVS Board Certified Veterinary Surgeon or your general veterinarian for more information about this topic. Search for an ACVS Veterinary Surgeon in your area.

Last Updated ( Tuesday, 23 June 2015 )
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