Multi Use (8 Way) Vaccines
Written by Administrator-GL   
Sunday, 02 May 2010

 Multi-Use Vaccines for Goats

And How Vaccines Work

What IS a Vaccine and How does it Work?

 What is a Vaccine?

Vaccines use a small amount of the organism vaccinating for and this  gets injected is generally a non-harmful strain of the virus or bacteria that we are protecting our animals from (live vaccine) or a killed form of the actual wild-type, disease-causing virus or bacteria. The injection may contain live organisms (termed a live vaccine); inactivated organisms, incapable of replicating in the body (termed a killed vaccine) or just little bits of the organisms: specific proteins or sugars (termed antigens) that the immune system will recognise as foreign to the body (vaccines made of bits of an organism are termed a subunit vaccines and are a form of killed vaccine). 

How does a vaccine work?

The mechanism by which vaccination works is complex and involves many chemical and cellular reactions within and between the immune system cells of the body.

Basically, the role of vaccination is to expose the naive immune system (immune system that has not yet been exposed to the foreign proteins/sugars - termed antigens - contained on attacking organisms) to viral and bacterial antigens contained within the vaccine so that, in the future, if the body gets attacked by a related virus / bacteria the immune system will recognize the antigens contained on these infectious disease organisms and activate very quickly (within hours as opposed to weeks with an unvaccinated, inexperienced immune system) to kill them. By having a large, mature immune response activate more rapidly, the hope is that the invading disease-causing organisms will be neutralized more quickly (before they get to replicate or invade deep into the body), thereby resulting in only mild, if any, clinical disease.

Vaccine Terminology


Lymphocyte - a particular white blood cell line that exists in the body. There are two main types of lymphocyte - T lymphocytes (also called T cells) and B lymphocytes (also called B cells which, once mature and making antibodies, are termed plasma cells). T lymphocytes regulate immune system responses and are involved in activating other immune and inflammatory cells including B cells. B cells make antibodies against antigens that are foreign to the body. Importantly, both T and B cells (and the antibodies made by B cells) are antigen specific - they will only trigger immune-system attack against antigens that they recognise as being foreign (in this way, immune system responses can be targeted only to invading threats).

Antigen - a protein or sugar (carbohydrate) contained on the surface of a cell, foreign object or infectious organism that the immune system can recognise and decide to attack. The immune system identifies antigens as being 'self' (normal to the body) or foreign (not normally found in the body). In normal animals, the immune system only attacks foreign antigens (e.g. antibodies should only be produced against foreign antigens).

Antibody - a protein made by a B cell that binds to a very specific antigen. Each different B cell (plasma cell) makes only one type of antibody and this antibody is very specific for a particular antigen. When an antibody finds a foreign antigen, it binds to the antigen and then calls other inflammatory cells over to kill it.

Virulent - when used to describe an infectious organism, it means that the organism is able to cause severe disease particularly in the non-vaccinated animal.

 

Live Vaccines vs Killed Vaccines Pros and Cons

  Live Vaccines

 Killed Vaccines

Provide longer duration and              
 complete immunity                            
 

 Provide short lived systemic 
 immunity.
 Cellular and secretory                           
 immunity should be produced.
 Cellular and secretory 
  immunity poor.

 Do not require multiple vaccinations

 Often require multiple vaccinations

 Rarely cause hyper- sensitivities Often cause hypersensitivity reactions
 May cause abortions when used on some animals
 Rarely cause abortions or disease form vaccination
 Shorter storage shelf life and can become dead if not kept at proper temperatures.
 They store for longer periods and are not as effected if kept  at constant temperatures
 More rapid induction of immunity Takes the body longer to provide immunity
 Potential to cause disease in young animals, pregnant or immuno-compromised animals
 Less likely to cause illness in young animals , pregnant animals or ill animals
 Less expensive to produce
 More expensive to produce
 One dose is usually required
 Multiple doses are usually required
 More chance of injection site abscess
 Less chance of injection site abscess

 

 

Why it is not recommended to use Multi-valent Clostridial Vaccines ( 7 or 8-way vaccines)

(For the vaccination of healthy cattle and sheep against diseases caused by Clostridium chauvoei, Cl. septicum, Cl. novyi Type B, Cl. haemolyticum (known elsewhere as Cl. novyi Type D), Cl. tetani and Cl. perfringens Types C and D. )

While it is usually easier to prevent a disease than to treat it, the use of vaccines in goats has become overwhelming.

Because vaccines are used to stimulate the body's defense against what organism you are vaccinating for, by allowing some of the organism to be introduced to the body and allowing the animal's own immune system to build immunity to it in a safe manner , overtaxing the system with too many different organisms at one time will create havoc in the system.  The lymph system is what processes the defense against organisms and when too many (as in the case of the 7 or 8 way vaccines) is introduced, the lymph system is overtaxed and refuses to defend itself agaisnt some of the organisms, therefore not protecting the animal  against all of the diseases you think you are providing protection from.  In the case of very young animals with little to no immune system  or in the case of ill goats with lowered immune systems, this can wreak havoc in the system creating more of a problem than what you began with.

The use of vaccines with more than two antigens is recently highly discouraged by many veterinarians because not only does it result in poor antibody protection but  again , it overworks the immune system by way of the lymphocytes (white blood cells that protect the body against  disease and harmful organisms) and when this happens, the lymphocytes become weakened and do not perform as they should due to antigen overload.  

You are FAR better off to vaccinate seperately for each disease you are targeting (or at least use a vaccine for only 2 diseases such as  C&D toxoid (type C and type D of Clostridium Perfringens) and Tetanus. I fyou feel the need to vaccinate for Blackleg , malignant edema, CL, Soremouth, Foot Rot or any other vaccinations, do them all seperately and remember to give one vaccine per side of the animal giving the lymph glands a better chance of distributing the vaccine.

Last Updated ( Sunday, 02 May 2010 )