Nutrient Content of Milk Varieties
Written by Administrator-GL   
Friday, 03 July 2015

Nutrient Content of Milk Varieties

http://milkfacts.info/Nutrition%20Facts/Nutrient%20Content.htm

Table 1. Nutrient content of milk varieties by serving; 1 serving = 1 cup (8 oz; 244 g). Compiled from the USDA Nutrient Database.

    Cow      
Component
Unit Whole (3.25% fat) Reduced Fat (2% fat)1 Lowfat (1% fat)1 Skim1 Goat Sheep Water Buffalo
   
--- Amount per 8 oz serving (1 cup; 244 g) ---
Overall Composition                

Water

g
215.50 217.97 219.4 222.56 212.35 197.72 203.47

Energy

kcal
146 122 102 83 168 265 237

Carbohydrate2

g
11.03 11.42 12.18 12.15 10.86 13.13 12.64

Fat

g
7.93 4.81 2.37 0.20 10.10 17.15 16.81

Protein

g
7.86 8.05 8.22 8.26 8.69 14.65 9.15

Minerals (Ash)

g
1.68 1.73 1.83 1.84 2.00 2.35 1.93
Vitamins
             

Vitamin A

µg
68
134
142
149
139
108
129

Thiamin (Vitamin B1)

mg
0.107
0.095
0.049
0.110
0.117
0.159
0.127

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

mg
0.447
0.451
0.451
0.446
0.337
0.870
0.329

Niacin (Vitamin B3)

mg
0.261
0.224
0.227
0.230
0.676
1.022
0.222

Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)

mg
0.883
0.869
0.881
0.875
0.756
0.997
0.468

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

mg
0.088
0.093
0.090
0.094
0.112
0.147
0.056

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

µg
1.07
1.12
1.07
1.30
0.17
1.74
0.88

Vitamin C

mg
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.0
3.2
10.3
5.6

Vitamin D

IU
98
105
127
100
29
ND3
ND

Vitamin E

mg
0.15
0.07
0.02
0.02
0.17
ND
ND

Folate

µg
12
12
12
12
2
17
15

Vitamin K

µg
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.0
0.7
ND
ND
Minerals (Ash)
             

Calcium

mg
276
285
290
306
327
473
412

Copper

mg
0.027
0.029
0.024
0.032
0.112
0.113
0.112

Iron

mg
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.07
0.12
0.25
0.29

Magnesium

mg
24
27
27
27
34
44
76
Manganese
mg
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.044
0.044
0.044

Phosphorus

mg
222
229
232
247
271
387
285

Potassium

mg
349
366
366
382
498
336
434

Selenium

µg
9.0
6.1
8.1
7.6
3.4
4.2
ND

Sodium

mg
98
100
107
103
122
108
127

Zinc

mg
0.98
1.05
10.2
1.03
0.73
1.32
0.54
Carbohydrate Detail
             

Lactose4

g
12.83
12.22
12.69
12.47
ND
ND
ND
Fat Detail
             

Cholesterol

mg
24
20
12
5
27
66
46

Fatty acids, total saturated

g
4.551
3.067
1.545
0.287
6.507
11.277
11.217

4:0

g
0.183
0.188
0.059
0.010
0.312
0.500
0.673

6:0

g
0.183
0.098
0.044
0.000
0.229
0.355
0.373

8:0

g
0.183
0.049
0.032
0.002
0.234
0.338
0.173

10:0

g
0.183
0.120
0.066
0.005
0.634
0.980
0.344

12:0

g
0.188
0.134
0.071
0.002
0.303
0.586
0.407

13:0

g
0.000
0.005
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

14:0

g
0.725
0.427
0.222
0.020
0.793
1.617
1.715

15:0

g
0.000
0.049
0.024
ND
ND
ND
ND

16:0

g
2.023
1.362
0.700
0.061
2.223
3.974
4.878

17:0

g
0.000
0.027
0.015
ND
ND
ND
ND

18:0

g
0.891
0.593
0.307
0.022
1.076
2.203
1.664

20:0

g
0.000
0.010
0.005
ND
ND
ND
ND

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g
1.981
1.366
0.676
0.115
2.706
4.224
4.360

14:1

g
0.000
0.034
0.017
ND
ND
ND
ND

15:1

g
0.000
0.010
0.005
ND
ND
ND
ND

16:1 unspecified

g
0.000
0.066
0.041
0.007
0.200
0.314
0.346

16:1 cis

g
ND
0.066
0.041
ND
ND
ND
ND

17:1

g
0.000
0.012
0.005
ND
ND
ND
ND

18:1 unspecified

g
1.981
1.237
0.610
0.044
2.384
3.817
3.821

18:1 cis

g
ND
1.049
0.520
ND
ND
ND
ND

18:1 trans

g
ND
0.190
0.090
ND
ND
ND
ND

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g
0.476
0.178
0.085
0.017
0.364
0.755
0.356

18:2 unspecified

g
0.293
0.151
0.073
0.005
0.266
0.443
0.171

18:2o-6,cis,cis

g
ND
0.134
0.066
ND
ND
ND
ND

18:2 i

g
ND
0.017
0.007
ND
ND
ND
ND

18:3 unspecified

g
0.183
0.020
0.010
0.002
0.098
0.311
0.185

18:3o-3,cis,cis,cis

g
ND
0.020
0.010
ND
ND
ND
ND
Protein Detail
             

Alanine

g
0.251
0.271
0.259
0.245
0.288
0.659
0.322

Arginine

g
0.183
0.261
0.234
0.176
0.290
0.485
0.278

Aspartic Acid

g
0.578
0.730
0.759
0.595
0.512
0.804
0.754

Cystine

g
0.041
0.261
0.283
0.310
0.112
0.086
0.117

Glutamic Acid

g
1.581
1.901
1.908
1.649
1.527
2.497
1.164

Glycine

g
0.183
0.149
0.154
0.123
0.122
0.100
0.195

Histidine

g
0.183
0.178
0.205
0.184
0.217
0.409
0.190

Isoleucine

g
0.403
0.447
0.456
0.367
0.505
0.828
0.495

Leucine

g
0.647
0.808
0.915
0.801
0.766
1.438
0.893

Lysine

g
0.342
0.569
0.700
0.617
0.708
1.257
0.683

Methionine

g
0.183
0.203
0.203
0.152
0.195
0.380
0.237

Phenylalanine

g
0.359
0.395
0.407
0.355
0.378
0.696
0.395

Proline

g
0.834
0.898
0.876
0.840
0.898
1.421
0.888

Serine

g
0.261
ND
0.508
0.412
0.442
1.205
0.554

Threonine

g
0.349
0.251
0.217
0.201
0.398
0.657
0.444

Tyrosine

g
0.371
0.373
0.346
0.363
0.437
0.688
0.447

Tryptophan

g
0.183
0.098
0.098
0.098
0.107
0.206
0.129

Valine

g
0.468
0.532
0.529
0.441
0.586
1.098
0.534

1Vitamin A added.

2Carbohydrate determined by difference.

3ND = not determined.

4Lactose determined by analysis.

 

Table 2. Nutrient content of milk varieties by 100 g reference amount. Compiled from the USDA Nutrient Data

    Cow      
Component
Unit Whole (3.25% fat) Reduced Fat (2% fat)1 Lowfat (1% fat)1 Skim1 Goat Sheep Water Buffalo
   
--- Amount per 100 g ---
 
Overall Composition                

Water

g
88.32
89.33
89.92
90.84
87.03
80.70
83.39

Energy

kcal
60
50
42
34
69
108
97

Carbohydrate2

g
4.52
4.68
4.99
4.96
4.45
5.36
5.18

Fat

g
3.25
1.97
0.97
0.08
4.14
7.00
6.89

Protein

g
3.22
3.30
3.37
3.37
3.56
5.98
3.75

Minerals (Ash)

g
0.69
0.71
0.75
0.75
0.82
0.96
0.79
Vitamins
             

Vitamin A

µg
28
55
58
61
57
44
53

Thiamin (Vitamin B1)

mg
0.044
0.039
0.02
0.045
0.048
0.065
0.052

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

mg
0.183
0.185
0.185
0.182
0.138
0.355
0.135

Niacin (Vitamin B3)

mg
0.107
0.092
0.093
0.094
0.277
0.417
0.091

Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)

mg
0.362
0.356
0.361
0.357
0.310
0.407
0.192

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

mg
0.036
0.038
0.037
0.037
0.046
0.060
0.023

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

µg
0.44
0.46
0.44
0.53
0.07
0.71
0.36

Vitamin C

mg
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.0
1.3
4.2
2.3

Vitamin D

IU
40
43
52
41
12
ND3
ND

Vitamin E

mg
0.06
0.03
0.01
0.01
0.07
ND
ND

Folate

µg
5
5
5
5
1
7
6

Vitamin K

µg
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.3
ND
ND
Minerals (Ash)
             

Calcium

mg
113
117
119
125
134
193
169

Copper

mg
0.011
0.012
0.010
0.013
0.046
0.046
0.046

Iron

mg
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.05
0.10
0.12

Magnesium

mg
10
11
11
11
14
18
31
Manganese
mg
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.018
0.018
0.018

Phosphorus

mg
91
94
95
101
111
158
117

Potassium

mg
143
150
150
156
204
137
178

Selenium

µg
3.7
2.5
3.3
3.1
1.4
1.7
ND

Sodium

mg
40
41
44
42
50
44
52

Zinc

mg
0.40
0.43
0.42
0.42
0.30
0.54
0.22
Carbohydrate Detail
             

Lactose4

g
5.26
5.01
5.20
5.09
ND
ND
ND
Fat Detail
             

Cholesterol

mg
10
8
5
2
11
27
19

Fatty acids, total saturated

g
1.865
1.257
0.633
0.117
2.677
4.603
4.597

4:0

g
0.075
0.077
0.024
0.004
0.128
0.204
0.276

6:0

g
0.075
0.040
0.018
0.000
0.094
0.145
0.153

8:0

g
0.075
0.020
0.013
0.001
0.096
0.138
0.071

10:0

g
0.075
0.049
0.027
0.002
0.260
0.400
0.141

12:0

g
0.077
0.055
0.029
0.001
0.124
0.239
0.167

13:0

g
0.000
0.002
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

14:0

g
0.297
0.175
0.091
0.008
0.325
0.660
0.703

15:0

g
0.000
0.020
0.010
ND
ND
ND
ND

16:0

g
0.829
0.580
0.287
0.025
0.911
1.622
1.999

17:0

g
0.000
0.011
0.006
ND
ND
ND
ND

18:0

g
0.365
0.243
0.126
0.009
0.441
0.899
0.682

20:0

g
0.000
0.004
0.002
ND
ND
ND
ND

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g
0.812
0.560
0.277
0.047
1.109
1.724
1.787

14:1

g
0.000
0.014
0.007
ND
ND
ND
ND

15:1

g
ND
0.004
0.002
ND
ND
ND
ND

16:1 unspecified

g
0.000
0.027
0.017
0.003
0.082
0.128
0.142

16:1 cis

g
ND
0.027
0.017
ND
ND
ND
ND

17:1

g
ND
0.005
0.002
ND
ND
ND
ND

18:1 unspecified

g
0.812
0.507
0.250
0.018
0.977
1.558
1.566

18:1 cis

g
ND
0.430
0.213
ND
ND
ND
ND

18:1 trans

g
ND
0.078
0.037
ND
ND
ND
ND

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g
0.195
0.073
0.035
0.007
0.149
0.308
0.146

18:2 unspecified

g
0.120
0.062
0.030
0.002
0.109
0.181
0.070

18:2o-6,cis,cis

g
ND
0.055
0.027
ND
ND
ND
ND

18:2 i

g
ND
0.007
0.003
ND
ND
ND
ND

18:3 unspecified

g
0.075
0.008
0.004
0.001
0.040
0.127
0.076

18:3o-3,cis,cis,cis

g
ND
0.008
0.004
ND
ND
ND
ND
Protein Detail
             

Alanine

g
0.103
0.111
0.106
0.100
0.188
0.269
0.132

Arginine

g
0.075
0.107
0.096
0.072
0.119
0.198
0.114

Aspartic Acid

g
0.237
0.299
0.311
0.243
0.210
0.328
0.309

Cystine

g
0.017
0.107
0.116
0.123
0.046
0.035
0.048

Glutamic Acid

g
0.648
0.779
0.782
0.673
0.626
1.019
0.477

Glycine

g
0.075
0.061
0.063
0.050
0.050
0.041
0.080

Histidine

g
0.075
0.073
0.084
0.075
0.089
0.167
0.078

Isoleucine

g
0.165
0.183
0.187
0.150
0.207
0.338
0.203

Leucine

g
0.265
0.331
0.375
0.327
0.314
0.587
0.366

Lysine

g
0.140
0.233
0.287
0.252
0.290
0.513
0.280

Methionine

g
0.075
0.083
0.083
0.062
0.080
0.155
0.097

Phenylalanine

g
0.147
0.162
0.167
0.145
0.155
0.284
0.162

Proline

g
0.342
0.368
0.359
0.343
0.368
0.580
0.364

Serine

g
0.107
ND
0.208
0.168
0.181
0.492
0.227

Threonine

g
0.143
0.103
0.089
0.082
0.163
0.268
0.182

Tyrosine

g
0.152
0.153
0.142
0.148
0.179
0.281
0.183

Tryptophan

g
0.075
0.040
0.040
0.040
0.044
0.084
0.053

Valine

g
0.192
0.218
0.217
0.180
0.240
0.448
0.219

1Vitamin A added.

2Carbohydrate determined by difference.

3ND = not determined.

4Lactose determined by analysis.

 

Table 3. Percent of daily reference intake (DRI) values for vitamins and minerals supplied by a serving of milk varieties; 1 serving = 1 cup (8 oz; 244 g). Calculations are based on USDA Nutrient Database and DRI requirements for an adult male.

  Cow      
Component
Whole (3.25% fat) Reduced Fat (2% fat)1 Lowfat (1% fat)1 Skim1 Goat Sheep Water Buffalo
 
--- % DRI for an Adult Male per 8 oz serving (1 cup; 244 g) ---
Vitamins              

Vitamin A

7.6
14.9
15.8
16.6
15.4
12.0
14.3

Thiamin (Vitamin B1)

8.9
7.9
4.1
9.2
9.8
13.3
10.6

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

34.4
34.7
34.7
34.3
25.9
66.9
25.3

Niacin (Vitamin B3)

1.6
1.4
1.4
1.4
4.2
6.4
1.4

Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)

17.7
17.4
17.6
17.5
15.1
19.9
9.4

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

6.8
7.2
6.9
7.2
8.6
11.3
4.3

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

44.6
46.7
44.6
54.2
7.1
72.5
36.7

Vitamin C

0.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
3.6
11.4
6.2

Vitamin D2

49.0
52.5
63.5
50.0
14.5
ND3
ND

Vitamin E

1.0
0.5
0.1
0.1
1.1
ND
ND

Folate

3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
0.5
4.3
3.8

Vitamin K

0.4
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.6
ND
ND
Minerals (Ash)

Calcium

27.6
28.5
29.0
30.6
32.7
47.3
41.2

Copper4

3.0
3.2
2.7
3.6
12.4
12.6
12.4

Iron

0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
1.5
3.1
3.6

Magnesium

6.0
6.8
6.8
6.8
8.5
11.0
19.0
Manganese
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
1.9
1.9
1.9

Phosphorus

31.7
32.7
33.1
35.3
38.7
55.3
40.7

Potassium5

7.4
7.8
7.8
8.1
10.6
7.1
9.2

Selenium

16.4
11.1
14.7
13.8
6.2
7.6
ND

Sodium5

6.5
6.7
7.1
6.9
8.1
7.2
8.5

Zinc

8.9
9.5
9.3
9.4
6.6
12.0
4.9
-----------------------------------

Nutritional Components in Milk

PLEASE ALSO READ- CITED:Nutritional Components in Milk
This page describes the function of nutritional components in milk: Energy, Water, Carbohydrate, Fat, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals, and Minor Biological Proteins & Enzymes. Links are provided to move the reader to pages that present the content of specific nutrients in milk, important background information on the chemistry of milk carbohydrate (lactose), fat, protein, and enzymes, and other topics that are covered in more depth in other sections of the website.

Nutritional Components in Milk

This page describes the function of nutritional components in milk: Energy, Water,Carbohydrate, Fat, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals, and Minor Biological Proteins & Enzymes. Links are provided to move the reader to pages that present the content of specific nutrients in milk, important background information on the chemistry of milk carbohydrate (lactose), fat, protein, and enzymes, and other topics that are covered in more depth in other sections of this website.

Energy

The energy in milk comes from its protein, carbohydrate and fat content, with the exception of skim milk that has virtually no fat. The energy content of some milk varieties is shown in the Nutrient Content Tables.

Food provides energy to the body in the form of calories (kcal). There are many components in food that provide nutritional benefits, but only the macronutrients protein, carbohydrate and fat provide energy. The energy value of a food is calculated based on the calories provided by the amount of protein (4 kcal/gram), carbohydrate (4 kcal/gram), and fat (9 kcal/gram) that is present.

Water

Milk is approximately 87% water, so it is a good source of water in the diet. The water content of some milk varieties is shown in the Nutrient Content Tables.

Water does not provide a nutritional benefit in the same manner as proteins or vitamins, for example. However, water is extremely important in human metabolism. Water is a major component in the body. Water maintains blood volume, transports nutrients like glucose and oxygen to the tissues and organs, and transports waste products away from tissues and organs for elimination by the body. Water helps to lubricate joints and cushions organs during movement. Water maintains body temperature regulation through sweating. Lack of water (dehydration) results in fatigue, mental impairment, cramping, and decreased athletic performance. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening.

Carbohydrate

Milk is approximately 4.9% carbohydrate in the form of lactose. The lactose content of some milk varieties is shown in the Nutrient Content Tables.

Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy for activity. Glucose is the only form of energy that can be used by the brain. Excess glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in the muscles and liver for later use. Carbohydrates are important in hormonal regulation in the body. Lack of adequate levels of glucose in the blood and carbohydrate stores leads to muscle fatigue and lack of concentration.

Lactose is a disaccharide made up of glucose and galactose bonded together. Before it can be used by the body, the bond must be broken by the enzyme lactase in the small intestine. People that have decreased activity of lactase in the small intestine may have problems digesting lactose and this is referred to as lactose intolerance or malabsorption.

Fat

Milk is approximately 3.4% fat. The fat content of some milk varieties is shown in the Nutrient Content Tables .

Fats are a structural component of cell membranes and hormones. Fats are a concentrated energy source and are the main energy source used by the body during low intensity activities and prolonged exercise over 90 minutes. Fat is the main storage form of excess energy in the body. Fats cushion organs during movement.

There are 2 fatty acids that are considered “essential” that cannot be made by the body and must come from the diet, and these are linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) acids. These fatty acids are used to synthesize the longer chain fatty acids arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 o-6), docopentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:4 o-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 o-3) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 o-3). These fatty acids are essential for the synthesis of hormones such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes that are involved in muscle contraction, blood clotting, and immune response.

The fatty acids in milk fat are approximately 65% saturated, 29% monounsaturated, and 6% polyunsaturated. The polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat include small amounts of the essential fatty acids linoleic and linolenic, and approximately 5% trans fatty acids. An important trans fatty acid in milk fat is conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 18:2). There are several types (isomers) of CLA in milk that have been shown to inhibit cancer and help maintain lean body mass while promoting the loss of body fat.

The health concerns associated with fats are often linked to the chemical differences in the fatty acids. Saturated and trans unsaturated fats have been associated with high blood cholesterol and heart disease. However, the relationships are not simple. The length of the fatty acid chain and source of the unsaturated bond (naturally-occurring or man-made through processing) can greatly influence the health consequences of a specific fat in the human diet. In addition, the genetics and health status of an individual greatly influences the impact of consuming different types of fats. The subject of fats and health is complex and constantly being updated in the medical literature.

The content of cholesterol in milk is shown in the Nutrient Content Tables. Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes and as a starting material for the production of bile salts and steroid hormones. The body manufactures cholesterol to ensure that an adequate level of cholesterol is available for body functions. Cholesterol is associated with fat so the content will vary depending on the fat content of the dairy product. An 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains 8% of the Daily Reference Intake (DRI) for cholesterol.

Protein

Milk is approximately 3.3% protein and contains all of the essential amino acids. The content of some milk varieties is shown in the Nutrient Content Tables.

Proteins are the fundamental building blocks of muscles, skin, hair, and cellular components. Proteins are needed to help muscles contract and relax, and help repair damaged tissues. They play a critical role in many body functions as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. Proteins may also be used as an energy source by the body.

Nine amino acids must be obtained from the diet and are referred to as the “essential” amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine, threonine, methionine, and lysine. Proteins that contain all 9 essential amino acids are often called “complete” proteins. Proteins of animal origin and soy are complete proteins, whereas proteins from grains and legumes are missing 1 or more of the essential amino acids, which means that consumers must eat complementary foods in order to get all of the essential amino acids.

Milk protein consists of approximately 82% casein and 18% whey (serum) proteins. Both casein and whey proteins are present in milk, yogurt, and ice cream. In most cheeses the casein is coagulated to form the curd, and the whey is drained leaving only a small amount of whey proteins in the cheese. During cheese making, the 6-casein is cleaved between specific amino acids and results in a unique protein fragment that is drained with the whey. This fragment, called milk glycomacropeptide, does not have any phenylalanine and can be used as a source of protein for people with phenylketonuria, the inability to digest proteins that contain phenylalanine. Whey proteins have become popular ingredients in foods as an additional source of protein or for functional benefits. Whey proteins are used as a protein source in high protein beverages and energy bars targeted to athletes. Some examples include the use of whey proteins to bind water in meat and sausage products, provide a brown crust in bakery products, and provide whipping properties that replace a portion of egg whites.

Whey proteins contain immunoglobulins which are important in the immune responses of the body. Whey proteins contain branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and have been proposed to have some benefits to athletes for muscle recovery and for preventing mental fatigue.

Vitamins

Vitamins have many roles in the body including metabolism co-factors, oxygen transport and antioxidants. They help the body use carbohydrates, protein, and fat. The functions of vitamins are described below in alphabetical order.

Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin involved in vision, gene expression, reproduction, and immune response. The compounds with vitamin A activity are called retinoids and are found in foods in different forms – typically animal foods provide retinol and retinyl esters, and plant foods provide ß-carotene, a starting molecule (precursor) for vitamin A synthesis. Milk contains retinol, retinyl esters, and ß-carotene. Dairy products are a good source of vitamin A, although the vitamin A content will vary with the fat content of the product. An 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains approximately 15% of the daily reference intake (DRI) for vitamin A.

Thiamin is a water soluble vitamin that is an enzyme cofactor involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and branched chain amino acids. An 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains approximately 8% of the DRI for thiamin.

Riboflavin is a water soluble vitamin that is an enzyme cofactor involved in electron transport reactions. Milk is a recommended source of riboflavin and an 8 oz serving of 2% milk provides approximately 35% of the DRI for riboflavin.

Niacin is a water soluble vitamin that is an enzyme cofactor involved in electron transport reactions required for energy metabolism. There is a small amount of niacin in milk, an 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains less than 2% of the DRI for niacin.

Pantothenic acid is a water soluble vitamin that is an enzyme cofactor in fatty acid metabolism. Milk is a good source of pantothenic acid and an 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains approximately 17% of the DRI for pantothenic acid.

Vitamin B6 is a water soluble vitamin involved in the metabolism of proteins and glycogen (energy stored in the liver and muscles), and in the metabolism of sphingolipids in the nervous system. An 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains approximately 7% of the DRI for vitamin B6.

Vitamin B12 is a water soluble vitamin involved in protein metabolism and blood functions. Milk is a recommended source of vitamin B12. An 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains approximately 47% of the DRI for vitamin B12.

Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that is an important antioxidant. It has a role in collagen formation in connective tissue and helps in iron absorption and healing of wounds and injuries. There is a negligible amount of vitamin C in milk, and a serving of milk contains less than 1% of the DRI for Vitamin C.

Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that is important in maintaining blood calcium and phosphorus balance and assists calcium metabolism. Milk is typically fortified with vitamin D. Fortified milk is a good source of vitamin D, and an 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains over 50% of the DRI for vitamin D.

Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin that has antioxidant activity. The compounds with vitamin E activity are the tocopherols and tocotrienols. Milk contains a small amount of vitamin E, which increases with increasing fat content of dairy products. An 8 oz serving of whole milk contains 1% vitamin E, and an 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains only 0.5% of the DRI for vitamin E.

Folate is one of the water soluble B vitamins. Folate is an enzyme cofactor important in the metabolism of proteins and nucleic acids and blood functions. There is a small amount of folate in milk. An 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains 3% of the DRI for folate.

Vitamin K is a fat soluble vitamin involved in blood clotting, bone metabolism, and protein synthesis. Milk contains a small amount of vitamin K, which increases with the fat content in dairy products. An 8 oz serving of milk contains less than 1% of the DRI for vitamin K.

Minerals

Minerals have many roles in the body including enzyme functions, bone formation, water balance maintenance, and oxygen transport. They help the body use carbohydrates, protein, and fat. The functions of minerals are described below in alphabetical order.

Calcium plays an essential role in bone formation and metabolism, muscle contraction, nerve transmission and blood clotting. Dairy products are a significant source of calcium in the diet. Milk is a recommended source of calcium, and an 8 oz serving contains almost 30% of the DRI for calcium.

Copper is a component of enzymes used in iron metabolism. Milk contains a small amount of copper. An 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains approximately 3% of the DRI for copper.

Iron is a component of blood and many enzymes. It is involved in blood metabolism and oxygen transport. Milk contains a small amount of iron, and an 8 oz serving of milk contains less than 1% of the DRI for iron.

Magnesium is an enzyme cofactor and is important in bone metabolism. Milk is a recommended source of magnesium, and an 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains approximately 7% of the DRI for magnesium.

Manganese is involved in bone formation, and in enzymes involved in amino acid, cholesterol, and carbohydrate metabolism. There is a small amount of manganese in milk. An 8 oz serving contains less than 1% of the DRI.

Phosphorus is involved in maintaining body pH, in storage and transfer of energy, and in nucleotide synthesis. Milk is a recommended source of phosphorus, and an 8 oz serving of milk contains over 30% of the DRI for phosphorus.

Potassium is an electrolyte that is important in the maintenance of water balance, blood volume and blood pressure. Dairy products are a recommended source of potassium, and an 8 oz serving of milk contains approximately 8% of the DRI for potassium.

Selenium is important in oxidative stress response, electron transport, and regulation of thyroid hormone. Milk is a good source of selenium, and an 8 oz serving of 2% milk contains approximately 11% of the DRI for selenium.

Sodium is an electrolyte that is important in the maintenance of water balance and blood volume. An 8 oz serving of milk contains approximately 7% of the DRI for sodium.

Zinc is a component of many enzymes and proteins, and is involved in gene regulation. Milk is a good source of zinc, and an 8 oz serving contains approximately 10% of the DRI for zinc.

Minor Biological Proteins & Enzymes

Other minor proteins and enzymes in milk that are of nutritional interest include lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase. There are many other enzymes in milk but these do not have a role in human nutrition.

Lactoferrin is an iron binding protein that plays a role in iron absorption and immune response. Many other functions of lactoferrin have been proposed, but their confirmation is still under study, including protection against bacterial and viral infections, and it's role in inflammatory response and enzyme activity.

Lipases, a group of enzymes that break down fats, are present in milk but are inactivated by pasteurization, which increases the shelf life of milk. A popular belief among raw milk consumers is that the native lipase in milk plays an important role in the digestion of fat. Fat digestion begins in the stomach with gastric lipase, and the majority of fat digestion occurs in the small intestine, using enzymes secreted by the pancreas. The relative importance of the native milk lipase in digestion compared to the pancreatic lipases is not clear.

Lactase (ß-galactosidase) is the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of lactose into glucose and galactose for digestion. There is no lactase present in fresh milk. Any lactase present in milk products comes from lactic acid bacteria that are either added to milk on purpose, as in the case of yogurt and cheese, or that enter milk from airborne or other contamination.

 

Last Updated ( Friday, 03 July 2015 )