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Sheep Meat Inspection Print E-mail
Written by Administrator-GL   
Saturday, 03 January 2009
Sheep Meat Inspection Chapter 1

Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Diseases caused by bacteria Necrobacillosis (see as cattle, calf diphtheria) Necrobacillosis in sheep lung: (fusiformis necrophorous) circular are of coagulative necrosis Necrobacillosis in sheep liver: (fusiformis necrophorous) raised brownish circular area of coagulative necrosis Necrobacillosis in sheep liver: multiple well circumscribed area of necrosis that may liquefy to form abscesses Brucellosis (see cattle) By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 1 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Brucellosis. Edema and swelling of scrotum. Brucellosis whit necrotic foci on the cotyledons & thickening of the inter cotylodonary area ( placentitis ) Black quarter (Black leg) Black quarter is an acute infectious disease of sheep and cattle manifested by inflammation of the muscles, toxemia and high mortality. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei. Transmission: Contaminated soil. The organisms enter into the digestive tract with feed and through cuts which occur during the shearing, docking, and castration, and via naval infection during birth. Infection of the vulva and vagina of the ewes during lambing may cause serious outbreak of the disease. Black leg is worldwide in distribution. Well nourished and grass fed animals are more often affected. Ante mortem findings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Fever Loss of appetite Depression Stiff gait and reluctance to move due to lameness Subcutaneous edema is not common. Gaseous crepitation occurs before death. Head lesions associated with edema and nose bleeding Postmortem findings: 1. Subcutaneous edema particularly noted around head. 2. Affected muscle is dark brown, dry and sponge like or moist. A pungent odor is noted. Less gas is formed than in cattle. 3. Tongue, heart muscle and/or diaphragm may be blackish red. Marked abdominal extension if fetus is infected. 4. Genital tract lesions in the walls of the vagina and occasionally uterus 5. Serosanguineous and hemorrhagic fluid in body cavities and pericardial sac 6. Edema of lungs By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 2 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Black leg dark muscles infiltrated with gas bubbles & have a rancid smell Black leg (Cl. chauvoei) extensive areas of darkened musculature BLACK QUARTER A carcass with extensive areas or darkened musculature, the hind quarter has the most sever changes including infiltration of the musculature with gas bubbles that have a characteristic rancid smell Judgment: Total condemnation of the carcass and viscera of an animal affected with black leg. It is prohibited to slaughter and dress the animal diagnosed with this disease on ante mortem examination. Differential diagnosis: Other acute Clostridia infections, lightning strike, anthrax, bacillary haemoglobinuria, malignant edema, extensive hemorrhage, acute lead poisoning and lactation tetany Enterotoxaemia (Pulpy kidney) This disease is a fatal toxemia in lambs, sheep, goats, calves and seldom in adult cattle. The disease is manifested by diarrhea, involuntary contraction of muscles, paralysis and sudden death. It occurs after a sudden change to a better, more nutritious diet. The disease is often noted in sheep that have been fed heavy grain, and in animals which graze on lush growing pastures. Clostridium porringers multiply in abomasums and intestine and produces toxin which paralyses the vital centers in brain and damages endothelium of blood vessels. The disease occurs extensively in particular in Southern Africa but is well controlled by vaccination. Ante mortem findings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Short course of the illness (2 – 12 hours) in lambs and longer course (24 hours) in sheep Animal found dead without previous sign of the disease Dullness and depression Rapid shallow respiration Loss of appetite and frothing Muscular contractions Green pasty diarrhea Grinding of the teeth and muscular tremor Logging behind the flock By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 3 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 10. Staggering and recumbence Postmortem findings: 1. No lesions in per acute cases 2. Large amount of clear, straw colored pericardial fluid 3. Petechial hemorrhages of the heart muscle 4. Congestion of the abomasal and intestinal mucosa and liver 5. Soft pulpy kidneys a few hours after death is characteristic of this disease 6. Overload of the rumen and abomasums with concentrate 7. Hemorrhage and edema in sheep brain 8. Rapid decomposition of the carcass Judgment: Carcass of an animal affected with enterotoxaemia is condemned. Differential diagnosis: Sudden death in lambs: pasteurellosis, hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia (reduced blood calcium and magnesium), polioencephalomalatia (less acute form), acute rumen impaction (no convulsions are present and the course is longer) and other septicemias. Adult sheep: rabies, acute lead poisoning, pregnancy toxemia and looping-ill Enterotoxaemia (pulpy kidney). Dilated intestine showing a patchy congestion. Note also congestion of mesenteric lymph nodes. Kidney (sheep) pulpy kidney: the kidneys are enlarged, pale, soft & fragile clostridium perfingens type D Colon sheep-enterotoxaemia echymoses on the serosal surface Enterotoxaemia (cl.welchi the small intestine is dark-red, necrotic and filled with gases By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 4 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Kidney (sheep) pulpy kidney clostridium perfingens type D the kidney is swollen & autolysis rapidly Kidney & small intestine (sheep): pulp kidney (cortical autolysis) chronic lymphoid hyperplasia of the small intestine Cl. perfringens type I Infectious necrotic hepatitis (Black disease) Black disease causes acute necrotic hepatitis in sheep and cattle and rarely in pigs. It is caused by bacterium Clostridium novyi in association with immature fluke invasion of the liver. Ante mortem findings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fever (40 – 42°C) Rapid and shallow respiration Sheep may be found dead without clinical signs. Sick animal usually segregates from the rest of the flock. Depression and in coordination Recumbence Postmortem findings: 1. Dark brown swollen liver showing necrotic areas surrounded by a zone of hyperemia 2. Evidence of recent infestation of liver flukes 3. Darkened and cyanotic subcutaneous tissue due to small blood vessel engorgement (dark appearance of the skin). The name “Black disease” was derived from this. 4. Clear straw colored fluid in the abdominal and thoracic cavities and in the pericardial sac Clostridium novyi is an endemic environmental contaminant and remains latent in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Immature liver flukes, by migrating through the liver, cause liver necrosis. This initiates Cl. novyi spores to germinate and proliferate. Necrotizing and hemolytic toxins are produced which cause generalized toxemia and haemolysis of the blood. Judgment: Carcass and viscera affected with black disease are condemned. Differential diagnosis: Fascioliasis, enterotoxaemia, blackleg, malignant edema anthrax By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 5 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 BLACK DISEASE: shows a typical large single infarct with scattered paler areas in cattle liver irregular pale infarcts on the liver surface of cattle (( BLACK DISEASE Liver of sheep (black disease): Area of necrosis 2-3cm surrounded by hyperemic zone Black disease. Dark brown swollen liver showing necrotic areas (1–2 cm) in diameter surrounded .by a zone of hyperemia I see this case in abattoir suspect it may be (Tuberculosis (skin T.b (1 Caseous lymphadenitis (2 Actino Bacillosis (3 By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 6 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 A) Tuberculosis (skin T.B)..Mucobacterium tuberculosis :Appearance Hard painless nodules up to hen's egg, single interadermal or multiple nodules, which are seen as chain following the line of subcutaneous lymphatic vessels. Lesion are found on limbs, fetlock forearm & hock & rarely on chest & shoulder :Pathogenesis Tuberculosis granulomas occur at the site of infection with spread along .lymphatic but with out involvement of lymph nodes :On section :Judgment Fibrous wall enclosing a case-calcareous center or thick yellow glutinous pus or dried material like powder maize or flake-like pellicle in appeared .Condemn skin with adjacent lesions :Differential diagnosis B) Caseous lymphadenitis :Etiology corynebacterium pseudo-tuberculosis which characterized by enlargement & .suppuration of one or more lymph nodes & occasionally the lung & spleen infection of the organism through unbroken skin of mucous membranes? In most case. It probably begins with superficial skin wound from ((shearing, grass awns, ((castrating, docking The organism enters afferent lymphatic vessels & gradually moves in to the regional lymph nodes, where it continues to grow & multiply in lymphoid tissue. Leukocytes especially neutrophils accumulate around the bacteria & the toxic bacterial metabolites ((including the exotoxin)) which kill the leukocytes & tissue, producing the typical caseous lymphadenitis lesions. The lesions are central masses of the necrotic tissue surrounded by a wall of connective tissue & capillaries the bacterial enter capillaries & multiply forming colonies that obstruct the vessels, resulting in ischemia. Toxins kill the cells of the inner part of connective tissue wall adding a new layer to the necrotic mass. Successive layers are added as live bacteria escape forming the lesion; they spread through efferent lymphatic, penetration other nodes, enter the venous blood go to the lungs & may .cause lesions in any invaded organs ?Which pathogenesis is :c) Actino Bacillosis By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 7 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Actinobacillosis: (wooden tongue). Nodules of variable size are scattered on the mucosa & muscle of the tongue substance Actinobacillosis in sheep lung , large, yellow, encapsulated pyogranulomas A.B: lesions are deep & nodular on tongue A.B: cross section pyogranulomatous glossitis Clinical signs in sheep: one or more firm nodules (up to 5cm in diameter), in the thickened subcutaneous tissues of the lower lip & other part of face may be seen in affected sheep. Sinus tracts, extending from some nodules, discharge purulent exudates to the surface. Sheep in advanced stage of the disease are unable to eat & consequently become emaciation & are often affected with inter current disease .such as pneumonia. The course varies from weeks to month Post mortem lesions: necrosis & softening of the tissue with pus formation at the site of infection as show in the lung of sheep Pathogenesis: the organism, once it has gained eatery in to tissue produces multiple small swellings that develop in to the abscesses. The surrounding tissue swell as a result of the inflammation & the tongue may increase in size. occasionally the organism Produces lesions ells where such as in the esophageal groove, the head & neck. Hematogenous dissemination may occur, causing .infection in the lungs & many other organs Caseous lymphadenitis This is a chronic disease of sheep and goats manifested by abscesses in the lymph nodes. It is caused by Corynebacterium pseudo tuberculosis. Caseous lymphadenitis has a worldwide distribution and causes great economic losses to the sheep industry. Transmission: Discharge from the lymph nodes, via wounds caused by shearing, castration and docking, contaminated sheep dips, skin abrasions or traumatized oral mucosa. Animals with open abscesses should be segregated in order to prevent the spread of the disease. By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 8 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Ante mortem findings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Animal is lagging behind the flock. Dyspnea Purulent ocular and nasal discharge Enlarged superficial body lymph nodes Generalized disease is associated with weight loss, depression and loss of appetite. Postmortem findings: 1. Caseous abscesses in the superficial lymph nodes and carcass musculature 2. Firm and dry abscess in the kidney and other organs Soft pasty abscess in the early stages changes to firm and dry with a characteristic laminated appearance in the later stages of disease. 3. Abscess content is creamy and pasty in goats 4. Pneumonia Differential diagnosis: Abscesses in the organs and viscera, neoplasm, echinococcosis and other parasitic lesions Judgment: If this condition is associated with extensive involvement of many lymph nodes and tissues, suggesting a haematogenous spread, the carcass is condemned. Otherwise it is approved. The affected tissue is condemned. Remarks: an abscess in a body lymph node is a sequel to the organism gaining entrance into the body via skin wounds etc. The drained area of the lymph node should be examined. If no other lesions are observed, it may be an indication that the lymph node has sequestered the agent. It is not necessary to condemn a quarter or a carcass due to a lesion in one lymph node or in several lymph nodes. Caseous lymphadenitis. Caseous abscess filled with greenish-yellow pus in the abdominal muscles. By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 9 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Lung (sheep) Caseous lymphadenitis chronic pulmonary abscesses CASEOUS LYMPHA-DENTITIS: abscesses in liver of sheep CASEOUS LYMPHADENTITIS: in lymph nodes Caseous lymphadenitis. Firm and dry abscess in the .kidney Listeriosis By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 10 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Goat listeriosis (circling disease):the animal walk in circle of small diameter Goat listeriosis: pituitary & brain stem abscess ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Diseases caused by viruses Rift valley fever (RVF) RVF is an acute viral disease of sheep, cattle, goats and humans. It is manifested with hepatitis and high mortality in young lambs and calves, and abortion in adult animals. Rift valley fever resembles influenza in humans. The disease is of significant importance in Africa. Transmission: Biting insects and mosquitoes. Possible direct contact via cornea. Human infection occurs by handling diseased tissues, and strict precautions should be instituted to prevent infection with this virus, such as wearing goggles and gloves. Ante mortem findings: Sheep 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Incubation 12 – 48 hours in young animals High morbidity and mortality in lambs and calves Fever Lambs refuse to eat, have abdominal pain and are recumbent. Animals seek a shaded area because of photophobia (squinting and blinking) Photosensitization characterized with a thickened head and ears. 7. Encrustation around the muzzle 8. Vomiting in adult animals 9. Congenital malformation of the brain and muscles 10. Abortion in ewes during the illness or convalescence Cattle 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Edematous unpigmented skin showing cracking and sloughing due to photosensitization Salivation and inflammation in the mouth Abdominal pain Diarrhea associated with hemorrhagic inflammation of stomachs and intestine Lameness Cessation of milk production Abortion Postmortem findings: 1. Cyanotic visible mucosa 2. Necrosis of the liver in lambs (liver may be mottled grey, or reddish-brown to bright yellow in color) 3. Edematous and hemorrhagic gall bladder 4. Hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal tract, serosal, internal organs and lymph nodes 5. Partial erosions may be seen in the ileum, caecum and colon 6. Udder is purple but inflammation is not observed 7. Hemorrhages in the fetus and haemothorax Judgment: Carcass of an animal showing clinical signs of Rift Valley fever is condemned. Reactors and recovered animals are approved. Affected parts of the carcass, liver and the blood must be condemned. By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 11 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Differential diagnosis: Defect in porphyrin metabolism, fungal conditions, acute viremias/toxaemias including enterotoxaemia, bluetongue, bovine ephemeral fever, Wesselbron disease, rinderpest, heart water, East Coast fever; abortions caused by Brucella, Vibrio, Trichomonas, Nairobi sheep disease and ovine enzootic abortion Hemorrhages in the fetus and haemothorax. Encrustation around the muzzle. RVF : lung hyperemia & edema & consolidation especially the apical lobes RVF: lamb liver showing sever necrotic & pale tissue & hemorrhage Contagious ecthyma (contagious pustular dermatitis, orf) A highly infectious pox virus disease of sheep and goats manifested by the occurrence of the pustular and scabby lesions on the lips, muzzle and udder. Transmission: Direct contact between animals. Indirect contact with dry scabs in pens. The virus is resistant to drying and may be viable in scabs for months and years in empty feedlots and pens. Farm workers may disseminate the virus among animals of different pens with contaminated equipment, feed and farm vehicles. Ante mortem findings: By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 12 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 1. Incubation: 2 – 3 days 2. Pustular and scabby lesions on the muzzle, lips and eyes. 3. Lesions on the udder and teats and the coronary band 4. The invasion of lesions by larvae of the screw worm fly and secondary bacterial action with Fusobacterium necrophorum 5. Lambs and kids are unable to suckle or graze due to lip lesions. 6. Uncomplicated cases may heal within one month. 7. Emaciation 8. Pneumonia in feeder lambs Postmortem findings: 1. Pustular and scabby lesions on the head, udder and feet 2. Ulcerative lesions in the nasal cavity and erosions in the mucosa of the esophagus and upper respiratory tract. 3. Inflammation of the reticulum, omasum and intestine 4. Necrotic lesions in the lungs, pleura and liver Judgment: The carcass is condemned if the disease is accompanied with inflammation of the stomachs and intestines, and with bronchopneumonia. Otherwise, it is approved. Differential diagnosis: Bluetongue, sheep and goat pox, ulcerative dermatosis, cutaneous anthrax and vesicular diseases head goat contagious eczema ORF: proliferating tissue around the upper teeth & on the surface of the tongue C.E : proliferative lesion around the goat mouth By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 13 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 C.E : proliferative lesions & detachment of epithelium on the lips Contagious ecthyma. Close up view of a .proliferative muzzle lesion Bluetongue (BT, catarrhal fever of sheep, “sore muzzle disease”) Bluetongue is a highly contagious viral disease of sheep, manifested by fever, oral lesions, lameness and emaciation. The disease occurs mostly in the African region, but also in Asia and the Pacific and in the Western hemisphere, but can be well controlled by vaccination. Transmission: Biting insects, especially Culicoides gnats and mosquitoes. Vertical transmission occurs in utero. Semen of infected bulls and mechanical transfer of infected blood by needles. Ante mortem findings: In sheep: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Incubation 6 – 8 days Fever Difficult breathing Excessive salivation Loss of appetite, weakness and emaciation Reluctance to move 7. Mucopurulent to bloody nasal discharge 8. Edema of the face, lips and jaw 9. Cyanosis of the tongue and mucous membranes (bluetongue) with erosion and sloughing of the oral mucosa 10. Lameness associated with sore feet caused by the inflammation of the coronary band 11. Abortion and deformed lambs In cattle, the disease resembles the infection in sheep and the clinical signs are from unapparent to mild. Postmortem findings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Vesicles or ulcers in the mouth Generalized edema and hemorrhage of subcutaneous tissue and musculature Excessive mucus in the trachea Congestion of lungs Generalized lymphadenitis Enlarged spleen Necrosis of the heart and skeletal muscles By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 14 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Judgment: Carcass of an animal affected with bluetongue is condemned when the clinical signs of an acute disease are associated with generalized postmortem lesions. The reactor animals are approved. Differential diagnosis: Sheep: Photosensitization, contagious ecthyma, sheep pox, Polyarthritis, foot rot, foot abscesses, laminitis, vesicular stomatitis, white muscle disease, muscular dystrophy in lambs, lungworm infestation and pneumonia. Bovine: Bovine viral diarrhea, malignant catarrhal fever, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, stomatitis, laminitis and Ibaraki disease, FMD. Bluetongu : salivation in an ovine recently infected Bluetongu : erosion & encrusted muzzle of Bluetongu : lesions at the coronary band of sheep Bluetongu : cyanosis of the tongue & mouth of sheep By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 15 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Bluetongue: secondary pasteurella infection in an affected sheep leading to pneumonia Bluetongu : extensive teat lesions in lactating cow Bluetongu : Intense congestion and swelling of lips and gums and sloughing of the dental pad .mucosa Bluetongu : Mucopurulent to bloody nasal .discharge By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 16 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Bluetongu : Close-up view of a lesion on the coronary band of a sheep. Sheep and goat pox Sheep and goat pox is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats manifested by papular and pustular eruptions on the skin and in generalized conditions with hemorrhagic inflammation of the respiratory tract. Transmission: Direct contact with infected animals, aerosols of nasal secretions and saliva and dried scabs. Indirectly by fomites and transportation vehicles. Ante mortem findings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Incubation 6 – 8 days Fever Laboured breathing Depression Lacrimation and salivation Lesions on the muzzle and lips Skin lesions may vary from macules, papules, vesicles, pustules to pocks and scabs. Necrosis and coalescing of the lesions and loss of wool Clinical signs of goat pox are less severe than in sheep pox. The benign form of sheep pox is commonly found in adult sheep and the malignant form in lambs. 6. 7. 8. 9. Postmortem findings: 1. Reddish to whitish firm nodules in the mucosa of the pharynx and trachea 2. Reddish to whitish nodules in the lungs. Rarely pneumonia 3. In malignant form: inflammation of the respiratory and digestive tract Judgment: Carcass of an animal showing the clinical disease without secondary complications is conditionally approved pending heat treatment. The recovered animals are approved. The carcass is condemned if the acute febrile or pustular stage of the disease is associated with secondary bacterial infections or if the carcass is inadequately bled. If bacteriological examination showed negative results, this carcass may be conditionally approved pending heat treatment. Differential diagnosis: Contagious ecthyma, scabies, eczema. Ulcerative dermatitis and peste des petits ruminants. By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 17 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 .Lesions on the muzzle and lips Lesions on the abomasums mucosa POX LESIONS: in pulmonary of sheep POX LESIONS: scrotum (bull) pox lesion POX LESIONS: the ventral surface of tail of sheep POX LESIONS : eruptions on the inguinal area in sheep By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 18 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 POX LESIONS: on the gum of sheep POX LESIONS: close-up view popular on the esophagus mucosa .Reddish to whitish nodules in the lungs Scrapie Scrapie is a chronic disease of the central nervous system in sheep and occasionally goats characterized by itching, nervous signs and a long incubation period. It is caused by a viral agent called “viroid” or “prion”, which has some of the characteristics of the virus, a “slow” virus like BSE and Maedi. Transmission: Most likely, the organism enters through breaks in the skin and mucous membranes of susceptible sheep. The agent is present in the lymph nodes, spleen, spinal cord and brain of infected sheep. It is transmitted from sick animals to healthy animals through pasture, where it may be infective for over 3 years. Vertical transmission from the dam and possibly the sire in sheep may also occur. The disease may be transmitted by inoculation of infective material. The agent is resistant to rapid freezing, thawing, boiling for 30 minutes and even to a 20 % formalin solution. At temperatures of 0 – 4°C, the prion is still active after two years. Oscillation of the temperature from 37– 70°C does not affect its infectivity. At temperatures of 94–98°C, the prion is still resistant for 24 hours. Ante mortem findings: 1. Dry wool and rough skin 2. Loss of wool from the head down over the side of the face, rump, thigh, tail base and abdomen 3. Changes of behavior. Charging of fences, dogs etc. By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 19 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 4. Biting of legs, flanks and belly because of severe itchiness (pruritus) 5. Smacking and rarely curling of the lips and wagging of the tail during rubbing of the skin over the back and sacrum 6. Grinding the teeth 7. Twitching of muscles, excitability and wild expression of the eyes 8. Restless animal, continuously laying down and getting up 9. In coordinated gait, tendency to run and fall down. 10. Convulsions Postmortem findings: 1. No gross lesions observed 2. Microscopy reveals the presence of large vacuoles in the cytoplasm of neurons; this is considered a diagnostic lesion. Judgment: Carcass and viscera affected with the clinical disease are condemned. Carcass of contact animals, offspring and ancestors may have a limited distribution or it may be condemned if economically feasible. Differential diagnosis: Pseudo rabies, scabies, thallium poisoning, cobalt deficiency, looping ill, pregnancy toxemia, external parasitism and photosensitive dermatitis Scrapie : the animal may suffer from intensive bruritis with rubbing & biting of the fleece & loss of wool especially over the poll, dorsum of the neck & behind the elbow Scrapie. In coordinated gait, twitching of muscles and wild expression in the eyes. By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 20 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Brain (sheep scrapie): vaculation of neurons (in reticular formation & nuclei) Pulmonary adenomatosis (Jaagsiekte, Driving sickness) Pulmonary adenomatosis is a chronic progressive pneumonia of sheep with the development of a primary lung neoplasm. This neoplasm is carcinomatous and infrequently metastasis to regional lymph nodes. A retrovirus causes the disease and a herpes virus acts in a secondary role. This is a disease of old ewes, more then 4 years of age. Lambs and yearling are rarely affected. Transmission: The disease is experimentally transmitted by inhalation of infected droplets by sheep that are kept in close contact. Vertical transmission from pregnant ewes to fetus has also been demonstrated. Ante mortem findings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Incubation 2 months to 2 years Difficult breathing and Lacrimation Loss of weight and emaciation When the rear of a sheep is lifted, excess fluid will run from the nose (wheel barrow test). Emaciation and Lacrimation Postmortem findings: 1. The lungs are increased in size and weight (as much as triple their normal size) and do not 2. 3. 4. 5. collapse when the thoracic cavity is open Bluish grey consolidation of the ventral part of the lung Secondary bacterial infections in the lungs Focal lung lesions are interspersed with areas of emphysema. Metastasis of the neoplasm into the bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes may occur infrequently. Judgment: Carcass judgment depends on the extent of lung involvement, condition of the carcass and secondary bacterial infection. Extensive lung lesions with metastasis and loss of musculature would necessitate the condemnation of the carcass. Differential diagnosis: Verminous pneumonia, Maedi/Visna, Caseous lymphadenitis and other debilitating diseases By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 21 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Pulmonary adenomatosis. Lung lesions showing light grey enlarged apical and cardiac lobes consisting of numerous grayish coalescing nodules (1 mm to 1 cm in diameter). Lung sheep: the anterior lobes are collapsed & dull red the diaphragmatic lobes are turgid & rose red Ovine progressive interstitial pneumonia (Maedi, Maedi-Visna) Maedi/Visna is a highly fatal viral disease of sheep and goats caused by a lentivirus. Transmission: Through colostrums to newborn lambs and less often by contact with respiratory route. Ante mortem findings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Listlessness Difficult breathing and frequent coughing Nasal discharge Emaciation Lameness In chronic cases, anemia and secondary bacterial infections Postmortem findings: 1. Enlarged grey-yellow non collapsible lungs of rubbery consistency 2. Cross section of lung parenchyma showing a meaty appearance 3. Enlarged and firm mediastinal lymph nodes Judgment: Carcass in good flesh with slight to moderate pulmonary involvement is approved. An emaciated carcass with extensive pulmonary lesions or secondary bacterial infection is condemned. Differential diagnosis: Parasitic pneumonia, pulmonary adenomatosis (Jaagsiekte) and pseudoglanders (Melioidosis) By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 22 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 Lung sheep Maedi/Visna : lung enlarged gray brown & of tens tippled with dark grey spots Ovine progressive interstitial pneumonia. Cross section of the lung parenchyma. The lungs are enlarged, non collapsible and have a meaty appearance Lung sheep/ Maedi. solid pale lobes Lung sheep/ Maedi. solid pale lobes Nairobi sheep disease Nairobi sheep disease is a non contagious, tick borne viral disease in sheep manifested by acute hemorrhagic inflammation of the stomach and intestine and by respiratory signs. Transmission: Adult forms of a tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus which attach themselves inside the ear of an animal. Unfed adult ticks are infective for one year. Faeces do not contain the virus. Ante mortem findings: 1. 2. 3. 4. Incubation 4 – 15 days Fever; during fever the blood, urine and tissue are infective Rapid painful breathing Dullness and depression By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 23 Sheep meat inspection chapter 1 5. Mucopurulent nasal discharge 6. Pain and grunting with defecation 7. Acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis 8. Bright to dark green faces (is important in the differential diagnosis.) 9. Abortion in pregnant ewes 10. Swollen vulva and external genitalia 11. Collapse and death Postmortem findings: 1. Excess fluid in the pericardium 2. Ecchymosed and Petechial hemorrhage in the heart muscle 3. Acute hemorrhagic inflammation of the stomachs and intestine 4. Distended gall bladder contains thick syrupy bile 5. Enlarged and edematous lymph nodes 6. Hyperemic genital tract Judgment: Carcass of an animal affected with the acute disease accompanied with fever and acute gastrointestinal lesions is condemned. Carcass of recovered animals and of animals with non systemic or generalized lesions is approved. The affected organs are condemned. Differential diagnosis: Rift Valley fever in sheep. Diarrhea in RVF may show blood tinged watery faces, but is not green in color as in NSD. In rinderpest ulcerative lesions are noted with bloody (and not green) faces. Heart water, anthrax and plant poisoning should also be considered in differential diagnosis. Nairobi sheep disease. Acute hemorrhagic inflammation of the stomachs By Dr.khaled fujairah municipality 24
Last Updated ( Saturday, 03 January 2009 )
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